Abstract - "One of the most effective tools that Congress can use to monitor the conduct of executive-branch officials is its subpoena power. If a government official refuses to comply with a congressional subpoena, Congress can hold her in contempt, and if the official still refuses, Congress can take her to court. Lawsuits between Congress and government officials over congressional subpoenas—what I call “political-branch information disputes”—are notoriously difficult for courts to resolve, however. Frequently, they devolve into “patently conflicting assertions of absolute authority” from both branches of government, United States v. AT&T, 551 F.2d 384, 391 (D.C. Cir. 1976), and courts have not yet developed a workable analytical framework for resolving these disputes."